Table Of Contents
- 1. Parking Bans in the United Kingdom
- 2. United Kingdom Office Space
- 3. Why Are United States Films Cut For the United Kingdom?
Parking Bans in the United Kingdom
A parking prohibition is a restriction on vehicles waiting on any section of the public highway (carriageway and public pavement). It is the most common on-street restriction on stationary vehicles in the United Kingdom and comes in a variety of versions that sometimes cause confusion to drivers and not a few Parking Attendants! This sometimes leads to the incurring and issuing of unnecessary and incorrect parking tickets.
Parking and waiting bans refer to the same thing and are used interchangeably in UK traffic law. Parking bans in the UK are also the least severe of its three on-street restrictions on stationary vehicles. – Parking, Loading and Stopping Bans
All parking restrictions usually permit the loading and unloading of heavy or bulky goods for a maximum duration, usually 20 minutes, provided the activity is visible and continuous. Parking bans do not prohibit a vehicle from stopping.
A vehicle stops either in compliance to a traffic signal or sign or to allow the alighting or disembarking of passengers, provided there is no undue delay in either activity. The need to stop in these instances overrides any parking ban in the United Kingdom.
There are broadly two types of parking bans in the UK. They are –
• Marked/Signed Bans
• Unmarked/Unsigned Bans
Marked/Signed Parking Bans
These are parking bans denoted by some form of visual representation on street such as a road marking and/or an upright sign. These will include the ubiquitous yellow line and the overnight waiting ban.
Yellow line or restricted street – (enforced by Contravention code 01)
Yellow lines can either come as single or double yellow lines. Single yellow lines broadly ban parking for less than 24 hours, usually for some period covering the working day. Single yellow lines within Controlled Parking Zones will not require individual time plates as long as they share the zone’s operational hours. However they will have to be individually signposted if they either reside outside a Controlled Parking Zone, or are within one, but don’t share its hours of operation.
Double yellow lines are enforced for 24 hours and do not require upright signs to be enforced.
Yellow line parking bans are promulgated by Local authorities in the UK through Traffic Orders (Traffic Regulation Orders in London) under the Road Traffic Act 1984. The orders must be promulgated in line with the stipulations of the Local Authorities Traffic Orders (Procedure) (England and Wales) Regulations 1996. The rules governing the marking and signage of single yellow and double yellow lines are established by the Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions TSRGD 2002, diagram 1017 and 1018 (respectively) and authorised by its Regulation 4 and Directions 7, 18(1), 22, 24(1), 24(4) and 25
Overnight waiting restriction (enforced by Contravention code 55)
An overnight waiting ban is another parking ban requiring on-street signage, but not specific road markings. It prohibits parking on specified streets during the evening and early hours and is applied to vehicles of a certain tonnage (usually 5 or 7.5 tonnes) However a large sign (TSRGD 640.2A) will be required on both sides of the relevant road. This sign is authorised by TSRGD 2002 – Regulations 14 and 24, Directions 7 and Schedule 16, items 12, 14 and 38. This sign will have to be placed on both sides of the road and will apply to the entire street.
These are parking bans that do not require any visual representation on street to be enforced. They include –
• Footway Parking Bans • Crossover Parking Bans • Double parking Ban
Footway Parking (enforced by contravention code 62 and 61)
A footway parking ban prevents vehicles waiting on the public section of the footway. This ban does not require any signs or road markings to be enforced and should be assumed on any public road particularly in Greater London. Where footway parking is permitted, particularly in areas where it is largely banned, standard signs authorised by the TSRGD 2002 (Diagrams 667 and 668) will clearly state this. While loading is largely discouraged from the footway, it is not specifically banned and genuine loading/unloading from the footway should largely be exempt from parking enforcement. The footway ban is enforced for 24 hours.
Crossover Parking and Double Parking (enforced by contravention code 27 and 26)
Neither of these bans requires road markings or signs to be validly enforced. A crossover is that lowered section of the pavement which allows vehicular access to private property or access to/from the carriageway for encumbered pedestrians or those with restricted mobility. Local authorities do not need to promulgate any traffic order to enforce this restriction. The Traffic Management Act 2004 allows this prohibition to be introduced without any prior traffic order although some form of public consultation is encouraged. Crossover parking bans are usually enforced for 24 hours.
The ban carries a number of exemptions, the key one being an exemption from the ban for any vehicle parked on a crossover to private premises with permission by the property owner.
The double parking ban does not as the name suggests, imply a vehicle separated from the kerb by the width of another vehicle. It indicates a vehicle parked 50cm or more from the kerb. Again this ban like the cross over ban does not require a separate traffic order and can be implemented directly by local authorities under the Traffic Management Act.
United Kingdom Office Space
Within Central London and the City of Westminster is Mayfair. The area has some of the highest rents in London and houses many offices that are derived from converted homes. The commercial areas of Mayfair include many financial firms and real estate companies. Mayfair also is home to many upmarket shopping locations as well as many luxury hotels and restaurants. Even with the high rental rates, Mayfair office space can be profitable for many types of businesses. Commercial space can be found in nearly all varieties of sizes.
Office Space to Let-
Converted homes that have been refurbished into office have been constructed to utilize natural lighting as well as be more energy efficient. Increased energy efficiency helps lower costs for businesses and also benefits the environment. Employees are usually more motivated in work settings with enhanced natural lighting. Employees who commute to work by rail or bus will also appreciate desk space with a location near a tube station and one that includes secure bike storage. Other amenities to look for when trying to let space in Mayfair are: broadband access, meeting and conference room access, IT support, window views, 24/7 accessibility and admin/secretarial support. Manned reception is also a plus. Many different types of Mayfair office space exist, including fully furnished offices, serviced offices, virtual office space and shared space offices.
Shared space usually accommodates smaller businesses and often includes all inclusive pricing. Anyone looking for available office land to let in Mayfair or London UK should negotiate the license agreement to be on a flexible basis. Flexible agreements are beneficial for businesses even when letting for the long term. Because the business environment changes so rapidly, having a flexible license is always a good idea. We have many listings for Mayfair and UK office space. Most are ready for immediate occupancy. We are also known to offer a free service and will search and find the best space in Mayfair to fit your company’s needs. No other letting agent will work harder. For more listings in nearby areas like Holborn, Clerkenwell and Euston please see our site. Finding the best office space in the United Kingdom to rent is not easy, but using the internet is a good start and taking your time is another good idea.
Pedestrians and commuters traveling to and from Mayfair can utilize public transportation which is provided by the Transport of London. For those traveling by air, the three major options are London Luton Airport, Heathrow and Gatwick International Airport. Hyde Park, Oxford Street, Piccadilly, Green Park, Regent Street and Grosvenor Square are just a few of the main thoroughfares and local spots in and near Mayfair and the City of Westminster. We have some Mayfair and London office place listings in some of these postal codes: W1 MK43 CT6 LA4 DN36 NR30 OX8 NR34 GU24 KT10 W1 W2 SW1 WC2 NW1 W1M WN1 WC1 EC1
Why Are United States Films Cut For the United Kingdom?
In this article I will try to answer the question about why United States films are cut for the United Kingdom screen. You may have noticed that United States films on region one format have the full playing time but when it is released in the United Kingdom there is about five minutes cut.
The reason for the difference in time between European and American discs is the frame rate.
The American version uses 30 frames per second so the original 24 frames per second (used in cinema) is changed into this. The way it does this is by duplicating half a frame out of every two frames. This results in a 30 frames per second version that is the same length as the original film.
European runs at 25 frames per second so to achieve this they speed up the film by four percent so you see 25 frames per second instead of 24. This slight increase in speed is not noticeable to the human eye.
The European version is actually better quality than the American version as it runs at 576 lines of resolution compared to 480 meaning it will give a better picture quality along with no interference from duplicated half frames.
Apparently every hour of the original cinema 24 frames per second film should last about 57 minutes and 36 seconds on the European version.
Sorry that this article is a little technical but that is the only way to really explain the difference. The main point though out of all this is that part of the film is not cut out. You are watching the whole film it is just to do with the technology.