Table Of Contents
- 1. The Decline and Deflation in the United Kingdom
- 2. European Union, United Kingdom, and the Freedom of Movement
- 3. United Kingdom Food
The Decline and Deflation in the United Kingdom
A “recession” is a contraction of the economy marked by a decline in gross domestic product (GDP), an increase in unemployment, and a drop in trade that lasts at least six months. A “depression” is simply defined as a recession that lasts longer and has more serious economic consequences. Major recessions/depressions that have affected the United Kingdom since the turn of the 20th century are:
1. The Post-World War I Depression (1919-1921)
In the run-up to the war, nations ramped up their manufacturing and defense sectors in anticipation of a global conflict. Afterwards, however, most countries scaled back on production, causing a drop in GDP worldwide. In addition, a huge numbers of soldiers came home looking for work, which triggered a significant rise in unemployment. In Europe, national economies had been badly battered by the fighting, which had damaged or destroyed factories and farms.
In the United Kingdom, GDP declined and deflation, the continuous drop in the price of goods and services, rose as high as 14 percent. In Germany and Central Europe, however, conditions were much worse, with hyperinflation reaching staggering heights and the obligation of defeated countries to pay war reparations adding more pressure on the already weak state economies.
2. The Great Depression (1930-1931)
This worldwide economic crisis began as early as 1929 in some countries and didn’t end until the beginning of World War II. International trade dropped by one-half to one-third of pre-depression levels and unemployment skyrocketed.
The demand for British goods plummeted, leading to widespread closing of British factories and a nationwide unemployment rate of 20 percent. In some places, it exceeded 70 percent. In protest, citizens organized hunger marches, the largest and one of the most violent being the National Hunger March of September-October 1932.
3. The Mid-1970s Depression (1973-1975)
In 1973, the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) enacted an embargo on exporting oil to the United States and other countries that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War (October 6-26, 1973), triggering an international oil crisis. The United Kingdom did not suffer as greatly from the embargo as other countries, since the British government refused to support Israel in the conflict and called on that country to return to its pre-1967 borders. Consequently, the U.K. continued to receive oil shipments, but OAPEC’s subsequent decision to reduce production to stimulate oil prices had serious consequences for Britons. Aggravated by miners’ and railroad workers’ strikes, the price of heating oil and coal rose, resulting in government bans on driving, boating, and flying on Sundays.
4. The Early 1980s Recession (1980-1982)
Motivated by a need to control inflation, the U.S. Federal Reserve raised interest rates and decreased the monetary supply. These actions affected economies all around the world. In the United Kingdom, exports and company earnings dropped, resulting in a rise in unemployment from about 6 percent to nearly 11 percent.
5. The Early 1990s Recession (1990-1992)
By the early 1990s, many savings and loan associations in the United States were collapsing, triggering panic among shareholders. Consumer spending dropped worldwide, leading to a decline in demand for factory goods. Company earnings in the United Kingdom dropped by about a quarter, budget deficits skyrocketed, and unemployment rose dramatically.
6. The 2008 Recession (2008-?)
Sparked by a financial crisis that began in the United States with mortgage lending, the 2008 recession rapidly spread to the rest of the world. In Britain, oil prices and unemployment rates rose, the value of houses declined, factory production dropped, and credit became increasingly tight. The government took a series of actions, including cutting national interest rates, but the country’s economic improvement continues to be slow.
European Union, United Kingdom, and the Freedom of Movement
The issue of the freedom of movement is controversial but it was established to form the single European Economy. Freedom of movement creates an active economy and population that reduces bureaucratic frictions to business development. The purpose of the Freedom of Movement is to create a situation and economy like the United States where workers, businesses, and services move with the ebb and flow of the economy. Migrant workers who are EU citizens can move from one member state to another member state for employment purposes. EU citizens can bring their immediate family with them when they work in another member state.
The United Kingdom allowed EU citizens visa-free entry into its country but forced non-EU family members of EU citizens to obtain a visitor’s visa.
The European Court of Justice has recently issued a decision that third country nationals who are residing in the European Union based on a family visa can enter the United Kingdom without a visa. The ruling is consistent with a directive that allows the freedom of movement among its citizens and family members. The United Kingdom allowed EU citizens entry into its country but forcing their family members to obtain visas was illegal.
The Court of Justice said that the freedom of movement directive applies to family members of EU citizens even if they are not nationals of a member state. Member states are not allowed to restrict EU citizens and their EU resident family members into each other country. The court stated that a member state can refuse or remove an entry permit if there was abuse or fraud but they cannot impose extra conditions for entry other than provided by EU law.
It is important to note that this ruling does not allow a third country nationals to move to the United Kingdom or any other EU country where they are not permanent residence.
It only means that if the third country national is a legal residence in one EU country, they have the right to travel freely without visas to other member states. It has to be a short term stay.
If the foreign national were to stay in another member state for more than three months, there can be restrictions placed on their stay. In those situations, the foreign national would submit evidence that they have the financial resources to support themselves.
The United Kingdom does not want to stop workers from other member states from entering their country. The UK understands that the freedom of movement of workers benefits its nation by expanding the labor pool for its growing economy.
However, the UK fears that non-working foreign nationals will place undue strain on its welfare and public services. The fears have been refuted by many studies that a vast majority foreign nationals who enter the UK are working, paying taxes, and contribute vastly more to the welfare system than is taken out.
United Kingdom Food
United Kingdom food can mean a lot to many people. Some think of a rich dish with very little spice, while others think of homemade meals from scratch that are brimming with flavor. The real traditional UK food is a meal that speaks volumes on its own. It has flavor that is to be savored. Sauces and side dishes are meant to compliment the main course, not take the glory away from it, or mask its taste.
You can find all you need about UK food online. You will be able to search for the history of the foods you love most, as well as recipes so you can make it at home.
Finding UK Cuisine
If you are trying to fine real United Kingdom food, then your best bet will be to look online. The Internet has opened the door to the information highway. You can search for the types of foods you like in the UK, by the actual dish name, or what is most common. Any of these methods will lead you to a long list of English favorites that will melt in your heart, as well as your mouth.
If you want to make your favorite British foods at home, then you will want to go to recipe site to find the list of ingredients and method of preparation. This will allow you to cook UK foods at home whenever you like.
Make sure that the site you find are at least four star sites that will offer you a high quality meal. There is nothing worse than wanting to taste your favorite dish and have it not be what you were expecting. There are enough sites on the web that you can look for the highest quality of United Kingdom food.
Preparing Food from the UK
When you are preparing United Kingdom food, be prepared to make most, if not all the meal, from scratch. These recipes do not offer short cuts using processed, frozen, or canned foods. All the foods should be fresh. This means making batter using flour not a can of already made dough. Your sauces will also be made from scratch, which will allow you to add herbs and spices as needed to them.
When you are making British foods from scratch you will need to be sure to have enough time to prepare your meals. You will have to expect a slightly longer time in putting your meal together. It will be worth it in the end when you bring a little piece of London into your dining room for the night. Your family will thank you for spending some extra time on dinner.
Once you have mastered the recipe you will find that preparing UK foods is actually easy and not really that time consuming. It is always a slow go at first, but with time and experience, you will get quicker and quicker with your meal prep time. Letting it cook is the easy part.